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MEDALIA DE AUR LA SALONUL INTERNATIONAL DE INVENTICA GENEVA, EDITIA 2017
 
Apr
03
Postat de: AdminAGRO
Sectiune: Faculty of Agriculture
MEDALIA DE AUR LA SALONUL INTERNATIONAL DE INVENTICA GENEVA, EDITIA 2017
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Parteneri
 
 
3rd section Plant protection

 

POSSIBILITY OF WEED KILLING IN MAIZE BY HERBICIDES APPLIED AFTER SOWING AND BEFORE SPROUTING
 
Milan BIBERD®IÆ, Nebojša DELETIÆ, Saša BARAÆ, Slaviša STOJKOVIÆ, Miodrag JELIÆ
 
University of Priština, Faculty of Agriculture Kosovska Mitrovica – Zubin Potok
Jelene An¾ujske bb, 38228 Zubin Potok, Serbia, E-mail: mbiberdzic@gmail.com
 
Abstract: Weeds represent one of the limiting fac­tors for reaching high grain yields in maize pro­duction. Observation of weed species emergence, as well as proper choice of herbicides and term of their application, can significantly decrease nega­tive effects to maize crops caused by weeds. So the aim of this paper was to explore the effect of weed killers, applied after sowing but before sprouting, on decrease of weed species presence and weed plants number in maize crops. The field trial car­ried out during 2005 in the vicinity of Leskovac (southern Serbia) was set to observe efficiency of four herbicides (S-metolachlor, acetochlor, alach­lor + linuron, and alachlor), applied after sow­ing but before sprouting, in preventing weeds of maize crops. The trial was set in RCB design with three replications. Number of weed species and plants was counted per m2, and efficiency coefficient of herbicides was calculated according to Dodell et al. (Stankoviæ, 1969). There were seven weed spe­cies in the maize crop with the average number of individuals per m2 of 123. The highest number of individuals was shown by Se­taria ssp. (42 plants/m2) and Chenopodium album (35 plants/m2). The highest coefficient of weed killing efficiency was given by acetochlor and amo­unted 71.54, and the low­est one by s-metolachlor where it was 63.41. All these weed killers expressed a weak effect to Abutilon theophrasti, Convolvulus arvensis, and Sorghum halepense. All the herbi­cides had a highly significant effect on grain yield value. Maize grain yield ranged between 7.235-8.943 kg/ha.
 
Key words: herbicides, weeds, maize, coefficient of efficiency, grain yield
Full version
 
 
 
THE BEHAVIOR OF A SUNFLOWER ASSORTMENT AT THE ATTACK OF THE MAIN PATHOGENS UNDER CONDITIONS FROM DIDACTIC STATION OF U.S.A.M.V.B. TIMIªOARA
 
Adrian BORCEAN, Dan MANEA, Simona NITÃ
 
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Banat from Timisoara
 
Abstract: In the present paper are presented  results for the year 2008 concerning behavior of an assortment of 32 sunflower lines from Monsanto on pathogen attack, in natural conditions at Didactic Station of Banat's University Of Agricultural Sciences And Veterinary Medicine Timiºoara. It is well-known that the area where the experimental field was implemented is the target of a few sunflower endemic pathogens which produce crop losses every year, two of this are Phomopsis helianthi and Phoma macdonaldi. By the present paper we try to draw the attention to the lack of genetic material at the present hybrids assortment with vertical resistance to these pathogens. All this underline the importance of a new   technology for sunflower, a technology which must bring some efficient measures to fight against these sunflower endemic pathogens.
 
Key words: sunflower, pathogens, natural conditions
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OBSERVATIONS CONCERNING THE MAIN PATHOGENS OF THE WINTER WHEAT STEM BASE BETWEEN 2006-2008 AT DIDACTIC STATION OF U.S.A.M.V.B. TIMIªOARA
 
Adrian BORCEAN, Levente MOLNAR, Simona NITÃ,
 
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Banat from Timisoara
 
Abstract: In the present paper are presented  results for the interval between 2006-2008 concerning behavior of an assortment of 8  winter wheat varieties on stem base pathogens attack, in natural conditions at Didactic Station of Banat's University Of Agricultural Sciences And Veterinary Medicine Timiºoara. In this paper from the main technological measures it is analyzed only the influence of the sowing density over two of the main steam base pathogens Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides (Fron.) Deighton and Gäeumannomyces graminis (Sacc.). Also, in this paper it can be observed the behavior of an assortment of the most cultivated varieties of winter wheat from the Western Plain of Romania, varieties which was created in some Agricultural Research Stations from Romania and Serbia, and due to this, the varieties have different degrees of soil and climate accommodation.            
 
Key words: winter wheat, stem base pathogens, natural conditions
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THE EFFECT OF CORONA DISCHARGES IN THE CONTROL OF GRANARY WEEVIL (SITOPHILUS GRANARIUS L.), MAJOR PEST OF STORED CEREALS  
                   
Adrian DINUÞÃ*, Horia BUNESCU**, Marian PROOROCU**, Ilonka BODIS**
 
*Regional Environmental Protection Agency Cluj-Napoca, Romania
**University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca Romania
Dorobanþilor Street  99, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, email: adrian_dinuta@yahoo.com
 
Abstract: Talking into consideration that chemical control is generally pollutant, its use to protect the stored cereal seeds is accepted in the main for the stocks but at the same time strictly limited in case of stocks destined for human and animal consumption. The paper presents some laboratory results of the tests concerning the effect of corona discharges as a possible non-pollutant mean to control the granary weevil adults (Sitophilus granarius L.). The corona discharges were generated between a superior brush–type and a ground flat electrode, connected to a fully adjustable high–voltage electric source. The testing method is the direct exposure of the infested cereal seeds by granary weevil adults to the corona field. The effect of corona field was studied at different level of voltage and exposure time against the infested stock in the Laboratory of Entomology at the Faculty of Agriculture of USAMV Cluj-Napoca and at the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, during 2002-2008. The recorded results after the tests in different corona discharges concluded that in the future these could be an unpolluted and low energophagous technology to protect the agricultural stored products.
 
Key words: corona discharges, granary weevil, pest, stored cereals
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Preliminary studies regarding the useful and pest animal species from different variants of maize in Timis, Calarasi and Braila counties
 
Ioana GROZEA, Ramona STEF, A. CARABET, Ana Maria VIRTEIU, Marcela BADEA, L. MOLNAR, Otilia COTUNA
 
BUASVM Timiºoara, Faculty of Agriculture
ioana_entomol@yahoo.com
 
Abstract:  In last time the attention of specialists is trended on finding of solutions in plant protection against pest species and protecting of useful species. The pro-against opinions existent actually on genetically modified plants convinced us to make studies regarding the effect of Bt maize on animal species who lives in maize crops. So, it were studied number of useful species and pest from soil, on plant and on traps, in comparative variant- conventionally maize and Bt maize, in some counties (Timiº, Cãlãraºi ºi Brãila) from our country. During 2008 year we obtained some preliminaries data. These studies are needed to follow in next years (2 at least). The structure and composition of invertebrate’s fauna from the three pedoclimatically zones were analyzed by using specifically methods, detailed in lab and studies direct observations in crop maize. The representative species in the samples were follow classes: Nematoda, Arachnida, Miriapoda, Insecta. In soil samples in Bt maize and in conventionally maize, too the most of species were useful (Carabidae). Among pest species, dominants were nematodes, especially in conventionally maize. Following the directly observations, a great percent of the attack of plants was registered at species from Phyllotreta genus, especially in conventionally maize (56.3%). Following the readings of the traps (Timiº) we can mentioned that in conventionally maize Diabrotica adults were greater (398,3ad.) than in Bt maize (146,33ad.). The results were obtained by financially and material support of international research Project MADR/MAKIS, 2008-2010.
 
Key wordsuseful and pest animal species, maize, Timis, Calarasi, Braila
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DEVELOPMENT OF APHIDINEA VECTOR OF VIROSES BY THE SEED POTATO WITHIN THE AGRO-ECO SYSTEM
 
    Pompilica IAGÃRU *, Gligor CIORTEA *, Romulus IAGÃRU **
 
* Universitatea Lucian Blaga din Sibiu
** Universitatea Alma Mater din Sibiu
 
Abstract:  Plants and animals associated in biocenosis live within the biotope and develop directly influenced by effective or useful temperatures. The speed with which biochemical processes are carried out (tn-to) is dependent on the air temperature (tn) and is limited by the biological threshold (to). Between reaction speed of biochemical processes characteristic of each species and temperature (processes underlying growth, development and multiplication of species) there is a close correlation, which allowed the formulation of mathematical equations very different from one species to another. Among these, the thermal constant equation can contribute fully to explain the processes of growth, development, propagation, biological spreading of species.
 
Keywords: potato, seed, potentially productive, aphide, development, biological propagation
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GRAPEVINE VARIETIES BEHAVIOR ON MAINE PATHOGENS ATTACK IN 2008 FROM THE AMPELOGRAPHICAL COLLECTION OF U.S.A.M.V. IASI
 
Nicoleta IRIMIA, E. ULEA, Andreea Mihaela BÃLÃU
 
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iaºi
Aleea Mihail Sadoveanu nr. 3, Iasi, 700490, Romania e-mail: nirimia@uaiasi.ro
 
Abstract: One of the reasons for lower grapes production is the pathogens attack in the vineyards. The grapevine mildew together with the powdery mildew and the grape grey mould are considered the most damaging diseases of the grapevine. The mildew and powdery mildew attack all aerial parts of the grapevine plants, while grape gray mould is frequently encountered on the mature berries, close to harvest. The study of these three pathogens was due to the fact that, they are present every year in the vineyards and producing attacks materialized in significant economic losses. The data regarding pathogens attack to the vines was conducted through surveys. The biological material was represented by different varieties of grapes, table grapes and wine grapes. The field observation was correlated with yearly phonological and ecological elements which lead to prognoses and control of main pathogenic agents. Depending on degree of attack recorded for each variety was established the expression of varietals and resistance of analyzed sorts (by OIV 459). The grape varieties which were taken in study showed different reactions under the same environmental conditions, materialized by different attack degrees to grapevine mildew, powdery mildew and grape grey mould. This paper contains results regarding the epidemiology and evolution of the main pathogens that attack the analyzed grapevine varieties.
 
Key words: grapevine disease, frequency, intensity, attack level
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APERA SPICA VENTI: A PROBLEM WEED IN STRAW CEREALS IN THE BANAT HILL AREA
 
Dan Nicolae Manea, Gicu Arsene, Gheorghe Cârciu, Simion Alda
 
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Banat from Timisoara
Timiºoara, Calea Aradului, 119, manea_dn@yahoo.com
 
Abstract: Experiments were carried out over two years (2007 and 2008) in Pirdea, in the Banat hill area, on a typical luvosoil with 34.5% argyle content, 2.19% humus, and a pH of 5.5. In 2007, winter wheat weeding reached 136 weeds/m2, of which 38.5% Apera spica venti and 61.5% dicot species such as Viola arvensis, Raphanus raphanistrum, Matricaria inodora, Cirsium arvense, and Convolvulus arvensis. In 2008, we identified 162 weeds/m2, of which 45.7% monocots (particularly Apera spica venti) and 54.3% annual and perennial dicots. Anti-graminaceae herbicides applied during vegetation were selective in winter wheat and had good results in controlling Apera spica venti: Puma super (95-92%), Assert 250 C (93-89%) and Grasp 25 SP (90-85%). Taking into account the relatively large number of dicot weeds, it is necessary to complete the treatment during vegetation with an anti-dicot herbicide (e.g. Icedin Super). In these variants we also obtained the highest yield increases (356-613 kg/ha in 2007 and 534-815 kg/ha in 2008). Among herbicides applied pre-emergently, the best results in controlling weeding degree in winter wheat (91-88%) was with Dicuran Forte, while Cougar and particularly Treflan 48 were less efficient, their effect being impacted by the precipitations during the period following treatment application. Yield increase ensured by Dicuran Forte was 384 kg/ha in 2007 and 508 kg/ha in 2008.
 
Keywords: winter wheat, weed control, Apera spica venti, herbicides, selectivity, eficiency;
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RESEARCH  REGARDING  CHANGES IN LIPIDS AND FATTY ACIDS IN THE WHEAT GRAIN AFTER INFESTATION BY RHIZOPERTA DOMINICA
 
Lavinia  Mãdãlina  MICU,   D.  I.  PETANEC
 
USAMVB  Timiºoara
Calea Aradului, no.119, Timisoara, LMICU@personal.ro
 
Abstract: Insects are one of the main causes of the losses produced in stored cereals and seeds. Rhizoperta dominica F. infests cereals and develops inside the grains thus producing the ‘hidden infestation’ of the cereals and increases of temperature and moisture in the produce. The grains look healthy and undamaged, even if the embryo, the endosperm or both of them are partially eaten. In wheat grains, lipids are rather low (1,5 - 2%), being stored mainly in the embryo and aleuronic layer. Seeds contain rather active anti-oxidants and fats in intact seeds are pretty well protected against the action of the aerial oxygen. Changes related to seed fat degradation can have either an oxidating nature leading to the appearance of rancid taste and smell, or hydrolytic leading to free fat acid production. The goal of the research was to monitor the changes in the lipids and fat acids in wheat grains infested by Rhizoperta dominica F. Results of bio-chemical analyses with eteroclorhidric method shall be supplied to all interested farmers, to milling and bread-making enterprises. Quantitative changes the lipids and fat acids were monitored on a number of 5 sample variants infested with 25, 50, 75, and 100 insects of Rhizoperta dominica, respectively. Contents in fat acids extracted and determined among the total general lipids was low compared to the control, except for the palmitic, oleic and stearic acid which were much more degraded. As a result, a month after the attack by Rhizoperta dominica F., degradation of lipids and fat acids in the wheat grain was significant.
 
Key words: grain, infestation, Rhizoperta dominica, modifications, lipids, fatty acids
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THE ANALYSIS OF THE RAIN GANGE SYSTEM AT THE MAIN METEOROLOGICAL STATIONS FROM TIMIS AND CARAS SEVERIN COUNTRIES
 
V. D. MIRCOV1, Z. FEKETE2, Antoanela COZMA1
 
1Facultatea de Agricultura, USAMVB Timisoara
2CMR Banat –Criºana,   SRPV Timiºoara
Calea Aradului 119, vlad_mircov@yahoo.com
 
Abstract: For Banat, from all the rain gauge risks, the must important are those possible during  the whole year, namely the humidity excess and the drought and dryness. To these phenomena we can add torrential rains, acid rains and the storms with hail, phenomena that have a great impact over the environment degradation. From the 30 years old data, there were spotted rain gauge stations and posts from Timis and Caras-Severin contries which showed extreme yearly (annual) obvions values during the period of 1970-2000.
 
Key words: humidity excess rain gange station, drought, dryness, multiannual media, minimum temperatures.
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RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE TOXICITY OF SOME INSECTICIDES TOWARDS THE POLINATING BEES FROM ALFAALFA CULTIVATIONS
 
Dina-Monica MOISE, Ioan PÃLÃGEªIU
 
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Banat from Timisoara
Coresponding author: dinamoise@yahoo.com
 
Abstract: Researches were carried out for the determination of some insecticides toxicity used actually on large scale in the agricultural practice, towards the pollinating bees from the alfalfa cultivation, under the condition from the South-Western part of Romania. The previous researches in our country were performed by Cârnu, Ciurdãrescu, Paulian et al., Bura et all. The researches were made under field conditions, in the alfaalfa   from the experimental field of the Didactic Station Timiºoara, during 2007-2008. There were used insulators with an area of 1 m2. Sprayings with insecticides were performed; 50 bees were introduced in each insulator and the mortality was supervised after 4, 8, 24 and 48 hours. The following insecticides were used: Fastac 10 EC (alfa-cypermethrin) - 0.15 l/ha, Sinoratox 35 CE (dimethoate) 1.5 l/ha, Decis 2.5 EC (deltamethrin)- 0.3 l/ha. Each variant was performed in three replications and compared with the untreated control variant. A moderate toxicity presented Fastac 10 EC. The researches on the toxicity of some insecticides to alfalfa pollinators have not been subject to such investigations in the South-Western part of Romania. The results achieved represent original contributions to the knowledge regarding the pollinating insects and their protection for obtaining an increased alfalfa qualitative and quantitative seed yield.
 
Key words: Toxicity, insecticides, bees alfaalfa
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ON THE RESPONSE OF SOME APPLE-TREE CULTIVARS TO THE ATTACK BY PODOSPHAERA LEUCOTRICHA (ELL ET EV.) SOLOMON IN THE CLIMATE CONDITIONS OF THE D.E.S. IN TIMIªOARA IN 2008
 
 
MOLNAR L., BORCEAN A., BÃLUÞÃ Daniela
 
U.S.A.M.V.B. Timiºoara, Calea Aradului 119
mlocsi@gmail.com
 
Abstract: In this paper we present the response of 5 apple-tree cultivars (Romus 2, Pionier, Jonathan, Delicios de Voineºti and Florina) to the attack by Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell et Ev.) Solomon in the climate conditions of the year 2003. Measurements were made on the intensive plantation of the D.E.S. in Timiºoara. From a climate point of view, the year was very favourable to the development of the fungus.
 
Key words: apple, Podosphaera leucotricha
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IMPROVING SAMPLE PREPARATION AND DNA EXTRACTION
METHOD IN APHIDS
 
Antonia ODAGIU, Ioan OROIAN, Valentin BÂLTEANU, Cristian IEDERAN, Ioan BRAªOVEAN, Claudia BALINT
 
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca,
Mãnãºtur st., no. 3 – 45, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania, e-mail:aodagiu @gmail.com
 
Abstract: Improving the sample preparation, testing and improving DNA extraction methods in aphids were the aims of our paper. In this field, few researches were developed at national level, and relatively few titles are found in literature, too. Traditional sampling methods, in collection bottles were used. Sample preparation and DNA extraction were performed according to literature methodology, but technical improvements were also tested. The molecular approach of this field is relatively new and it has been developed in last decade. The improved methods obtained in aphid sample preparation and DNA extraction will facilitate the development of PCR based methods of genotyping the plant predators, globally, and development of screening methods for several interesting species, simultaneously. The importance of implementing these techniques at large scale is revealed by the accuracy of results, and also by the possibility of suitable selection of the products used for fighting against aphids.
 
Key words: aphids, DNA, sampling, extraction, improvement
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FIGHTING AGAINST ADODXOPHYES ORANA PEEL MOTH OF FRUITS THRU „ATTRACT AND KILL” METHOD
 
Oltean Ion٭, Gânscǎ Lucia٭٭, Florian Teodora٭, Bunescu Horea٭, Bodiº Ilonka٭ Varga Mircea٭
 
٭USAMV CLUJ-NAPOCA ٭٭ICC RALUCA RIPEN CLUJ-NAPOCA
E-mail: ionoltean@personal.ro
 
Abstract: Using these products, from the biopesticides category, will allow the obtaining of a healthy fruit production, without pesticides residues. There using will not affect the ecological balance, these biopesticides being selected for the useful entomofauna from fruit-growing ecosystems. For evaluating the efficiency of every experimental variant in the abatement of the fruit peel moth was proceed at establishing the intensity of attack produced by both generations’ grubs. At the hibernating generation was followed the attack produces by the grubs at the inflorescences, sprout and leafs level and for the summer generation was followed the attack at the leaf level. The high biological hibernating relay of this pest, in the 2008 spring affected and destroyed up to 37 % from the buds, leafs and growing top of apple-trees. Using the sexual attractants pheromones can decrease the attack produce at fruits up to 76.92 %. Applying the pheromone through „attract and kill„ method can increase the efficiency up to 15.38 %.
 
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THE CONTROL AND MONITORING OF THE ORCHARD PESTS
IN TRANSYLVANIA
 
Ioan OROIAN, Ioan OLTEAN, Antonia ODAGIU, Laura PAULETTE,
Cristian IEDERAN, Ioan BRAªOVEAN
 
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca,
Mãnãºtur st., no. 3 – 45, 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania, e-mail: neluoroian@gmail.com
 
Abstract: Monitoring the biological supply of nine orchard mite species with special economical importance in middle Transylvania, was the aim of our paper. Besides usually monitored species (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, Anthomus pomorum, Hoplocampa testudinea, Hoplocampa minuta, Cydia pomonella, Cydia funebrana ºi Rhagoletis cerasi), other two were also considered (Janus compressus ºi Eurytoma schreineri)  because in last years were identified within tree plantations, and their population is in continuous increase and in several plantations became key mites. The classical monitoring method was used. The monitoring activity revealed the presence of the Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, phytosanitary quarantine specie was encountered in more than 80% of tree plantations, but biological supply was maintained on marginal rows or points difficult to access for chemical works. Paper originality consists in emphasizing the presence of Janus compressus in apple and pear trees and Eurytoma schreineri in plum tree. The practical aspects revealed by this paper underline the importance of this kind of approach for the warning campaign against orchard mites and performing chemical treatments.
 
Key words: mites, orchard, phytophagous species, monitoring
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RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE LIFE CYCLE OF THE FLOE – TREE CATERPILLAR (ORGYIA ANTIQUA L.)
 
Ioan PÃLÃGEªIU, Eugen COJOCARU
 
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Banat from Timisoara
Coresponding author: palagesiu@yahoo.fr
 
Abstract: The paper presents the results about the life cycle peculiarities of the Orgyia antiqua L. (Lymantriidae, Lepidoptera) species, from 2005-2007 in the Mehedinti County. In Romanian specialised literature investigations concerning this defoliator caterpillar are scarce and incomplete. The investigations were carried out in field conditions using the entomological insulators for obtaining the data for the biological card and then for the synthesis table, which will be associated with climatic data for the presentation of this pest life cycle. It results that during three years the pest had one generation per year and hibernated as egg. The larvae appears generally in the first or second decade of May at a main sum of effective temperatures Σ = (tn-t0) = 1507,10ºC. For the investigated zone the researches are absolutely new and also it completes the data about the defoliator caterpillars from our country. Because there are scarce data in Romania the researches can be extended, the pest being one of the most damaging defoliators. The paper contributes with its new data to the completion of the knowledge concerning the sloe-tree caterpillar (Orgyia antiqua L.).
 
Key words: Floe-tree, caterpillar, Orgyia antiqua L., apple, orchards, defoliator, life cycle.
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RESEARCH CONCERNING THE ATTACK BY CYDIA  POMONELLA L. ON APPLE IN THE TIMIªOARA AREA IN 2008
 
Doru  Ion  PETANEC, Lavinia  Mãdãlina  MICU
 
USAMVB  Timiºoara
dpetanec@yahoo.com
 
Abstract: In Romania, the attack of Cydia pomonella on apple trees results in a high percentage of wormy fruit that can reach up to 70% in certain years, which diminishes yield with the same percentage. Fruit attacked are damaged qualitatively, fall earlier than normal and rot because of the infection by Monilia fructigena. Research aimed at establishing the intensity of Cydia pomonella butterfly flight in the Timiºoara area in 2008. The biological threshold in Cydia pomonella was established at 9ºC. To determine flight curve in butterflies, we set pheromone ATRA POM traps starting with May 1st, 2008, 2-3 weeks before the supposed appearance of the butterflies, taking into account that the first generation appears around May-June, and the second one about July-August. We recorded captures 3 times a week to develop flight curve. After each monitoring, the butterflies were removed from gluey the traps. When temperature went below 150C and precipitations were above 10 mm, we made no observations and recorded no data. Results of observations will be supplied to the farmers, if required. In 2008, on May 20, we collected the largest number of Cydia pomonella from the pheromone traps set in the orchard. The lowest number of captures was in the first days of May. We lanced the warning three days after recording the maximum number of 28 individuals. For second generation, maximum captures recorded in 2008 on July 17, and the lowest number of captures was in the first days of July. The warning for second generation we lanced in 2008 on July 20, after recording the maximum number of 99 individuals.
 
Keys words: apples, atack, Cydia pomonella, flight curve
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TAGETES: NEMATODE UNFRIENDLY MEDICINAL, ORNAMENTAL PLANT
 
Ionicã  PROHAB*,  Ioan BORCEAN*
 
       *DADR Timiºoara, **USAMVB Timiºoara
 
Abstract: Tagetes patula (common name marigold) has been cultivated for its receptacleless flower (Tagetes flos sine receptaculis) containing volatile oil (0.5-1.5%) helenine, a substance used in medicine for the quick adaptation of the eye to different light intensities. In Germany, they pay a lot of attention to this plant for the nematode control properties of the roots. In this paper the authors present the results of their research carried out between 2006 and 2008 on a gleyed aluvisoil in the Timiºului Plain located in Western România. The goal of the research was to control nematodes in vegetable gardens by cultivating Tagetes patula and Tagetes erecta species in alternation with vegetables. Results are original and particularly important in Pratylencus nematode control in vegetable gardens within ecological technologies (no insecticides). Results point out the possibility of controlling Pratylencus nematodes (40-70%) depending on the Tagetes species used.
 
Key words: Tagetes sp., nematode hostile plants
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Weed control IN CANOPY OF sugar beet
 
Jozef Smatana*, M. Macák*, E.Demjanová*, E.CANDRÁKOVÁ*, I. Djaloviæ**
 
*Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Nitra, Slovak Republic
** University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agronomy, Serbia
Corresponding author: Milan Macák, e-mail: milan.macak@uniag.sk
 
Abstract: A three year field study (2005-2007) was conducted in south-western Slovakia to investigate the effect of herbicides control on weed density, diversity and herbicide efficiency in sugar beet fields. An actual weed infestation was evaluated before herbicides application and 3-4 week after application of herbicides with concordance to International scales of EWRS. Screening of each field was made on the quadrant of 1 m2 area with four replications. Weed infestations in general was high, 105 pieces weeds per square meter. Weed diversity varied from 19 to 23 species each year of evaluation. On the base of three years field assessment we can conclude: The evaluated herbicides control is very effective strategy for weed control in sugar beet. After herbicides control the significant changes in weed flora were noted in term of abundance and share of some weed species on total weed community. After herbicide control Polygonum spp., Chenopodium spp. and Echinochloa crus-galli remained the dominant weed species in canopy of sugar beet. In late summer and autumn Amaranthus retroflexus, Cirsium arvense  and Atriplex spp. also rise as a problem weeds.
 
Key words: weed density, weed diversity, herbicides weed control, sugar beet
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THE CHARACTERS ANALYSIS AND CREATION OF SOME REGRESSION MODELS  AT SPECIES SORGHUM HALEPENSE
 
Ramona ªTEF, Ioana GROZEA, Alin CÃRÃBEÞ, Ana-Maria VÎRTEIU, Daniela BÃLUÞÃ, Otilia COTUNA
 
Faculty of Agriculture, Banat`s University of Agricultural Sciences, Timisoara, Romania,
Calea Aradului 119.(e-mail:chirita_ramona@yahoo.com)
 
Abstract: In year 2008, Sorghum halepense samples were gathered from 16 localities in Timis County in order to initiate a study of plant height, number of internodes, length of the last internodes, panicle length, and number of branches. The data statistical interpretation was realized throughout SPSS.  Length of the last internodes and panicle length are proved to be, after statistical interpretation, the factors with the higher influence on plant height. We observed that the length of the last internodes and panicle length exerted a major influence on plant height achieving a correlation coefficient between 0.481 and 0.865. Correlation is significant at 0,05 level.
 
Key words: Sorghum halepense, plant height, number of internodes, length of the last internodes, panicle length, number of branches
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OBSERVATIONS REGARDING THE BIODIVERSITY OF ENTOMOFAUNA IN SOME COLZA CULTURES
 
Nela Tãlmaciu, M. Tãlmaciu, Monica Herea
 
University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine Iassy
M. Sadoveanu Alley, No 3, 700490, Iasi, Romania,E-mail: ntalmaciu@yahoo.com
 
Abstract: Collection of material was made with entomological fillet on colza crops research institute belonging to the cultivation of potatoes and sugar beet for Brasov and its surroundings kidnapped  "rapeseed cultivation". Were made a number of five scythes  to the two variants, in June the following date: 2.06, 6.06, 16.06, 26.06 and 30.06.2008.  The material thus collected was then cleaned of scrap plant then was kept in a solution in alcohol concentration of about 20%, where they were kept for a period of time. Following determination of material was present in material collected of species of insects helpful and harmful. In some situations, especially if coleopterelor determination was made to species level, in other cases the determination was made to family or genus, less to species. Finally there was a greater presence as a species are harmful to the order Coleoptera species Meligethes aeneus, Phyllotreta nemorum and Ceuthorrynchus assimilis. Fauna is especially useful order Hymenoptera with several families: Braconidae, Calcididae, Ichneumonidae and Formicidae. Fauna density useful, harmful and total / m², had different values depending on the variant and the time of collection. The variant trated rape cultivated percentage of useful fauna was 5.36% while the spontaneous variant kidnapped, the percentage of useful fauna was 16.98%.
 
Key words: treatment, pests, fauna useful
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Observations regarding the spreading and control the invasive weeds from a natural pasture
 
Nela Talmaciu, Ramona Huma
 
University of Agronomy Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Iassy
M. Sadoveanu Alley, No 3, 700490, Iassy, Romania,E-mail: ntalmaciu@yahoo.com
 
Abstract: Fodder production and grazing represents an important activity in zootechny, especially for cattle taking into account, that from production expense, thouse for animal food represents the greatest  weight. In majority pasture ecosystems exploited by grazing, it is happening a transformation of flora composition, frequently through adaptation in this surfaces with desirable species with low economic value. The control of invasive plants, known with generic name weeds, comunne in all agroecosystems, require height costs, determinating a major cost of production, correlated with a low work productivities in this economyc sector with major importance. Our preliminary research performed in pastures from central region of Moldavia which were exploited in a non-rational and inadequare mode have showed that some plants with small fodder qualities or which have the capacity to synthesize some toxic substances for animals, has been multiplied very much becoming invasive weeds (Lepidium draba, Euphorbia cyparissias, Artemisia sp., etc), wich decrease dramatically the productivity of the ecosystems. The observations were made in year 2008 in a natural pasture from the department of Iassy, norteast of Romania. This paper presents the observations regarding the biological control agents which can limitate the Lepidium draba populations.
 
Keywords: natural pasture, invasive weeds, biological control agents
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LOG-POLAR PHASE-ONLY CORRELATION APPLIED TO BEETLES SYSTEMS OF GALLERIES
 
Alin TEUªDEA*, Ovidiu HÂRUÞA*, Gianina GABOR**, Camelia PORUMB***
 
* University of Oradea, Faculty of Environmental Protection, Romania
 ** University of Oradea, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Romania
 *** University of Oradea, Faculty of Fine Arts, Romania
Corresponding author: Alin Teuºdea, ateusdea@uoradea.ro, ateusdea@gmail.com
 
Abstract: Pattern recognition in the present study is based on the image capture and the correlations using log-polar transform and phase-only correlation. The beetles systems galleries’ architecture is captured on digital images, further cleaned for image enhancement and finally analyzed using comparators based on natural models. The correlators extract those image segments which remain invariant despite the variations induced by biotic and abiotic factors to the architecture of galleries.
 
Key words: pattern recognition, beetles systems of galleries, phase-only correlation, log-polar transform
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THE DYNAMICS OF APPLE SCAB ATTACK – VENTURIA INAEQUALIS (CKE.) WINT. IN THE ORCHARDS OF APPLE FROM SIBIU COUNTY, IN THE PERIOD 2006-2008
                                                                        
Ana TIMAR
 
Department for Agriculture and Rural Development – SIBIU-Romania
Phytosanitarium Unit-Sibiu
 
Abstract: The research presented in this paper includes the pathogenetical agents Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint, which causes the brown maculation of the apple’s leaves and the scab attack on the fruits and sprouts of the apple Malus pumila. One has observed the action of the fungus Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint to certain environment factors (temperature, atmospheric humidity, rainfall and the phenological stages of culture. As a result of the infection, one may observe the moment of the attack. They were correlated to the apple’s phenological phases with meteorological data and the biology of the fungus (warning criteria) in order to issue warning bulletins. 'Bulletin warning' contains: the pest agent for which the warning is issued, the culture, the necessary conditions for the treatment, the recommended products for the plant protection, dose appliance (commercial substances/ ha), the optimum period of the treatment, special recommendation concerning the environmental protection, the observance of security standards and animal protection, warning the bee breeders concerning the phytosanitary treatments during the mentioned periods.
 
Key words: Plant protection, Atack ,Degree of attack
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THE DYNAMICS OF THE ATTACS OF POWDERY MILDEW – PODOSPHAERA LEUCOTRICHA (Ell. et Ev.) Salm.  IN THE APPLE ORCHARDS FROM SIBIU COUNTY DURING THE  PERIOD 2006-2008
 
Ana TIMAR
 
Department for Agriculture and Rural Development – SIBIU-România
Phytosanitarium Unit-Sibiu,  timar_ana@yahoo.com
 
Abstract: The researches presented in this paper include pathogen Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell. et Ev)Salm, producing „apple’s flouring” in Malus pumila fruit-growing species. The monitoring of flouring on apple orchards in the county of Sibiu, in the period 2006-2008, was realized with the purpose of establishing annual strategies to combat the endangering agent, by maintaining it under the limit of the economical threshold of danger.
 
Key words: Podosphaera leucotricha (Ell.et Ev.)Salm,  (Ell. et Ev), monotorization, dynamics.
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EFFICACY OF HERBICIDES CONTROL OF COMMON RAGWEED (AMBROSIA ARTEMISIIFOLIA L.) IN MAIZE
 
Štefan TÝR – T. VEREŠ – M. LACKO-BARTOŠOVÁ
 
Department of Sustainable Agriculture and Herbology, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agricultural in Nitra,
Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94901 Nitra, Slovakia e-mail: Stefan.Tyr@uniag.sk
 
Abstract: In the year 2008 was conducted field trials in the south-west region of Slovak Republic. Our aim was to detect the efficacy of five herbicides to control common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) in canopy of maize for grain. In field trial 5 active materials (dimethenamid, mesotrione, rimsulfuron, dicamba, fluorochloridon) were used. Estimation of actual weed infestation and assessment efficiency of applicable herbicides was made according to EWRS score. The most effective preemergence herbicides were fluorochloridon (Racer 25 EC) with efficacy 1-2 and dimethenamid (Spectrum) with efficacy 2-3 after 30 days from application. Less effective were postemergence herbicides with efficacy from 3-4 after 30 days from application according to EWRS score. The recommendation of practical usage of herbicide control of common ragweed for praxis has been elaborated.
 
Key words: Ambrosia artemisiifolia, herbicides efficacy, maize
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THE MOST PROBLEMATIC WEEDS IN THE PEA FOR GRAIN (PISUM SATIVUM L.) IN ECOLOGICAL FARMING
 
Štefan TÝR – T. VEREŠ – M. LACKO-BARTOŠOVÁ
 
Department of Sustainable Agriculture and Herbology, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agricultural in Nitra,
Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94901 Nitra, Slovakia, e-mail: Stefan.Tyr@uniag.sk
 
Abstract: In the years 2005-2007 was conducted weed survey on the farms in conversion to ecological farming system. The aim was to detect the most harmful weeds, as important biotic, environmental stress factor, on the farms in the canopies of pea for grain in all production region of the Slovak Republic. The actual weed infestation was evaluated by standard methods common used by EWRS a numerous method per square. In the pea for grain 6 weed species were detected, the most problematic were: perennial weed (Cirsium arvense), annual weeds (Persicaria spp., Tripleurospermum perforatum, Avena fatua, Chenopodium spp., Atriplex spp.).
 
Key words: weed infestation, conversion, ecological farming system, pea for grain
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DYNAMICS OF APPEARANCE AND EVOLUTION TO THE WATER MELON (CITRULLUS LANATUS  L.), OF DOWNY MILDEW [PSEUDOPERONOSPORA CUBENSIS (BERK. ET CURT.) ROSTOW.], IN THE RAINY YEARS2004, 2005, IN BARAGAN FIELD, (BRAILA AREA).
 
Eugen  VELICHI
 
’’Dunarea de Jos,, University – Galaþi Faculty of Engineering – Brãila Departament of Agriculture
Calea Calarasilor No. 29 Code 810017  eugen _velichi @yahoo.com
 
Abstract: During some rainy years, water melons can be affected by a series of pathogenic agents that might produce, in some situations, some important damages. One of these pathogenic agents is the downy mildew produced by Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk. et Curt.) Rostov. The aim of the research was to establish the moments of disease apparition, favouring factors for starting the attack, as well as the possibilities of prevention and fight. Downy mildew was the subject of some thorough studies of the cucumbers, both in the field and in protected spaces (green houses, solariums). Nowadays, unlike the cucumber, the level of the researchers in this domain, in the proper area, both to the water melon and to the yellow melon, is practically inexistent.  For making the notices, there have been organized experiences that respected the requests of an experimental technique. The experimented methods included different schemes of treatment + the witness method – 0 treatments. For interpretation of the results, there has been used the statistic analysis, according to the experimental technique. For the respective area, research has a great practical importance, as in some certain years, the pathogenic  agents can cause great damages, being for many times the decisive factor for obtaining some good productions in quantity and especially in quality.  During observations, more attention for the meteorological factors has been paid: the average temperature, precipitations, relative humidity of air and humidity on leaves (the dew).
 
Key words:mildew, watermelon, pathogenous agent
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RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE EXTERNAL MORPHOLOGY OF THE BIRD'S – FOOT TREFOIL THRIPS (ODONTOTHRIPS LOTI HAL) LARVAE IN THE WEST PLAIN CONDITIONS
 
 
Ana – Maria VIRTEIU
 
University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine of the Banat Timisioara
Corespoonding author: anamaria.badea@gmail.com
 
Abstract: The importance of bird’s – foot trefoil consists firstly in the fact that can replace alfalfa and trefoil, on the places where other forage plants  can't be cultivated and also because has the biggest resistance at the pests and disease attack.  In the production case of the bird's – foot trefoil seed, one of the insects that produces the greatest damages, about 80% from the total production, is the bird's – foot trefoil trips. Even if it was mentioned in the special literature from the country and abroad, that pest was studied a little and that because this paper proposed to emphasize some experimental data concerning of its biology, specially some aspects regarding the biometrical measurements effectuated on the second install larvae of Odontothrips loti Hal. For the investigations accomplishing the experimental field was placed at Didactical Station Timisoara. The experiences location was realized after the standard method of the experiences location, in three repetitions, each parcel with a length of 2m and latitude of 1m. In realizing the biometrical measurements it built an insulator with metallic skeleton and covered with gauze. For studying the second install larvae of bird's – foot trefoil thrips, the samples taking were accomplished during a period of 20 days, with a periodicity of taking at each 48 hours. After the biometrical measurements it established that the length of second install larvae body of Odontothrips loti Hal. was of 1,230 mm ± 0,19 mm.The length of cephalic capsule were of 0,080 mm ± 0,02 mm. The cephalic capsule latitude was of 0,120 mm ±0,02 mm.
 
Key words: birds – foot trefoil, Odontothrips loti, larvae, biometrical measurements
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STUDIES ABOUT SOME ASPECTS CONCERNING THE EXTERNAL MORPHOLOGY OF THE ODONTOTHRIPS LOTI HAL. ADULT IN THE WEST ROMANIAN CONDITIONS
 
Ana – Maria VIRTEIU, Ioana GROZEA, Ioan PÃLÃGEªIU
 
University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine of the Banat Timisioara
Corespoonding author: anamaria.badea@gmail.com
 
Abstract: The Lotus corniculatus has a great capability of autoinsemination, even in the conditions of a depasturage of a long time. Concurrently, the rusticity assures great qualities to the Lotus corniculatus, comparative with the other leguminouses such as, the lack of meteorisations production during the consumption under green table shape (Zamfirescu, 1965). The entomofauna knowledge of this crop plants represents one of the most important stage in realizing a integrated protection to obtain a production of superior quality and great quantity. Odontothrips loti Hal. is one of the most important pest of this crop, mekeing damage of 80% of the total yield production. The paper propose is to emphasize some experimental data concerning the effected investigations results wich deffine the influence of different parts of the body, upon the development of the adults of Odontothrips loti Hal. In realizing this porpoise  the experimental fields was placed at S.D. Timisoara, after the standard method of location of the experiences, every lot had the length of 2 m and a latitude of 1 m. After the biometrical measurements it established that the head lenght is aproximately equal with his latitude, being a few broader (+0,07). The protorax lenght broader then long and the head and prothorax lenght excels the latitude of those two regions. The head and prothorax lenght represent cca 1/3 from the abdomen lenght. The abdomen represents 6/3 from the body lenght, and the prothorax and head lenght reported to the body lenght represents 2/8.
 
Key words: birds – foot trefoil, Odontothrips loti, external morphology
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