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1st section RESEARCHES IN THE FIELD OF PLANT PRODUCTION – CEREALS, LEGUMES AND TECHNICAL PLANTS

 

ORRECTION OF FERTILIZATION AND STAND DENSITY IN DEPENDANCE FROM WINTER PRECIPITATION AND MINERAL NITROGEN SOIL CONTENT
 
B. MARINKOVIÆ, J. CRNOBARAC
 
Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad, Serbia and Montenegro
 
ABSTRACT: At optimal mineral nutrition and plant number, climatic and edaphic factors significantly affect the height of yield in a genotype. A long-term trail was established to study the effect of crop density and the distribution of mineral nitrogen (N) down the soil profile on yields of maize. According to the amount, pre-growing season precipitation was divided as follows: low (up to 191 1m2), mean 192-291 1m2) and high (over 292 I m2). Data related to weather conditions and yields were processed by multiple 'StepviseJ linear regression. using adapted determination coefficients (R-Asustied). The effect of significant factors on yields was analyzed using path-coefficients. Data concerning mineral N and yields were processed using the same analysis as well as multiple molynomial regression. The height of yield has been shown to be significantly affected by winter precipitation. ETR (in June, July and August). the distribution of N down the profile. and crop density. THe percentage contribution of these parameters to the total variability ;was 92.6 and 93.7. Winter precipitation and the distribution of N should therefore be used for determining optimal density and N fertilization.
 
Key words: maize. stand density. nitrogen distribution according to soil profile.
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BIOMASS GROWING DYNAMIC OF BASKET WILLOW (SALIX VIMINALIS L.)
CULTIVATED FOR ENERGY PURPOSES
 
Pavol Otepka, Miroslav Habán
 
Department of Sustainable Agriculture and Herbology, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976  Nitra, Slovak Republic
e-mail: Pavol.Otepka@uniag.sk
 
Abstract:  Plant biomass is one of the energy resources, which contains much of the advantages of renewable energy resources that are possible to saturate mankind energy requirements nowadays. The aim of the research paper is to evaluate the biomass accumulation potential of fast growing basket willow (Salix viminalis L.) cultivated for energy purposes on human planted plantation. The experiment was realized in the four-year period (2000 – 2003) of the agri-ecological conditions analysis for growing of different basket willow varieties at the Experimental Base of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra (Slovak Republic). The influence of these factors on dry matter yields of basket willow was reviewing: variety (ORM, RAPP, and ULV), stand organization (arrangement A – double rows = 0.5 m x 0.75 m or 1.25 m; arrangement B = 0.5 m x 0.75 m) and growing season (2000 – 2003). There can be determined an order between different basket willow varieties for cultivation in the warm south Slovakia conditions: 1. ULV: 54.1 t.ha-1; e.g. average of dry matter yield accumulated after four-year cultivation cycle; 2. ORM: 44.0 t.ha-1; 3. RAPP: 25.4 t.ha-1. From the stand organization point of view better results were achieved in the arrangement B (43.8 t.ha-1) than in arrangement A (38.5 t.ha-1). These are results from second four-year cycle of basket willow cultivation (plantation was planted in 1996). There is possibility for biomass harvests and their evaluation in few more four-years cycles from the stand status and plant health point of view.
 
Key words: basket willow, common osier (Salix viminalis L.), renewable energy sources, growing, yields
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THE INFLUENCE OF SOIL TILLAGE ON SOIL MOISTURE PARAMETERS UNDER CROPPING OF COMMON PEAS
 
Jozef  SMATANA, Milan MACÁK, Eva DEMJANOVÁ
 
Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, Slovak Republic
 
Abstract:  The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of reduce and conventional tillage systems on soil moisture dynamics by growing of common pea after spring barley. The field trial was carried out on Ortic Luvisol on silt loess at south west of Slovakia during, 1995-1997. The experimental sites belongs to warm and moderate arid climatic region with long term average precipitation 580 mm and 9.6 ˚C temperature and 173 m altitude. The common pea was growing in following crop rotation:  winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – maize (Zea mays L.) – spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) – common pea (Pisum sativum L.). The mouldboard ploughing to the depth 0.2 m with surface cultivation of topsoil with comparison to shallow loosening to the depth 0.1 m and its influence on soil moisture dynamics in six layers has been evaluated. Samples were taken five times per year with tree replication in six layers (each 0.1m thick). The seasonal and spatial dynamics with influence of different soil tillage in some layers   has   been noted. The better moisture balance was reach in conventional tillage treatment with comparison to reduce one. The significant high moisture content was found out in deeper layer 0.5-0.6 m with comparison to topsoil layer. Seasonal dynamics with influence of weather and growing crops have been ascertained. According three years field trials we confirm no significant differences of soil moisture between conventional tillage and reduced tillage treatments in average. Total average of moisture content under reduced tillage revealed the less infiltration rate with comparison to conventional mouldboard ploughing. The highest variability of soil moisture was induced by date of sampling and soil layer.
 
Key words: tillage systems, soil moisture, common pea
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QUANTITATIVE-QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF MILK THISTLE (SILYBUM MARIANUM /L./ P. GAERTN.) YIELD CULTIVATED IN WARM AGRICLIMATIC MACROREGION
 
Miroslav Habán, Pavol Otepka
 
Department of Sustainable Agriculture and Herbology, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 94976  Nitra, Slovak Republic
e-mail: Miroslav.Haban@uniag.sk
 
Abstract: Polyfactorial field experiment was established and investigated during the vegetation periods of 2004 and 2005 at the Dolna Malanta locality (Nitra district, Slovak Republic). This locality is geomorphologically situated in western part of Zitava upland as an independent part of river Danube lowland. From the agriclimatic conditions point of view, this locality belongs to the warm agriclimatic region, dry agriclimatic microregion, and mostly mild winter zone. In the year 2004 yields of milk thistle (Silybum marianum /L./ P. Gaertn.) achenes, e.g. fruits, ranged from 232.9 kg.ha-1 (RMF variant: – incorporated crop residues with intercrop and artificial fertilizers) to 794.5 kg.ha-1 (KBF variant: – without crop residues and intercrop, artificial fertilizers have been used) at the standard humidity (14%). In the year 2005 the yields varied from 554.0 kg.ha-1 (RMO variant: – incorporated crop residues with intercrop, no artificial fertilizers) to 1 480.0 kg.ha-1 (RBO variant – incorporated crop residues without intercrop and artificial fertilizers). From the two-year results of the experiment it is recommended to continue in research of quantitative-qualitative parameters of milk thistle production within different management of cultivation.
 
Key words:milk thistle, Silybum marianum /L./ P. Gaertn, quantitative-qualitative parameters, yield
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THE YIELD OF MAIZE HYBRIDS GROWN  ON THE PHOTODEGRADABLE FOLIUM
           
Predrag JOVIN*, Zivota JOVANOVIÆ*, Ivica ÐALOVIÆ**, Miodrag TOLIMIR*
 
*Maize Research Institute, Zemun Polje, Serbia and Montenegro
**Faculty of Agronomy, Cacak, Serbia and Montenegro
 
ABSTRACT In this paper present study was to determine the differences in yields of medium late maturity maize hybrids grown with and without the folium under the equal agroecological conditions.Maize hybrid plants grown with the photodegradable folium were taller by 13.3 cm than the plants of the same hybrids grown without the photodegradable folium. Grain yield of hybrid plants grown with the photodegradable folium was higher on the average for all three years by 8.09% than the yield of hybrid plants grown without the photodegradable folium. Only in a favourable year 2001 with a sufficient amount of precipitation during the growing season there were no differences in yields obtained in hybrid plants grown with and without the photodegradable folium. Due to relatively high costs of the folium and its setting the economic justification in the application of the folium could be found in the production of higher categories of maize seed.
 
Key words: maize hybrids, photodegradable folium, yield.
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RESEARCH CONCERNING THE “PERMANENT VEGETAL COVER” TECHNOLOGICAL VARIANT IN MAIZE
 
Paul Pîrºan,  Florin Imbrea, Adrian GÃVRUÞÃ, Lucian BOTOª
 
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Timiºoara
 
Abstract. We organised during the experimental cycle 2003-2005 on the cambic chernozem in Timisoara an experiment in which maize was cultivated in the “permanent vegetal cover” technological variant using as intermediary plants facelia and mustard compared to the classical technological variant. Results obtained show that there are no yield significant differences between the two technological variants. In both culture systems row weed control resulted in significant yield increases.
 
Key words: agricultural system, permanent vegetal cover, and maize
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POSSIBILITIES OF VALORISING STERILE FROM BANATITE MINING EXPLOITATIONS IN SOUTHERN BANAT
 
Ioan BORCEAN*, Gheorghe DAVID*, Adrian BORCEAN*, Florin IMBREA*, Simona NIÞÃ*, Sorin VERDEÞ*, Lucian BOTOª*.
 
Agricultural and Veterinary University of the Banat, Timiºoara,România
 
Abstract. During the last two decades they have carried out research aiming at answering the question whether banatite sterile material can be valorised as a source of oligo-elements and macro-elements for agricultural crops. Mining sterile is not radio-active, and its heavy metal content is below European admitted limits. Research was carried out on wheat, maize, and beans, on a brown eumesobasic soil (eutricambosoil).
 
Key words: valorisation, mining sterile, agricultural crops
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RESEARCH CONCERNING THE BEHAVIOUR OF A SWEET MAIZE HYBRID ASSORTMENT DEPENDING ON FERTILISATION AND SOWING DENSITY IN THE SOIL AND CLIMATE CONDITIONS OF THE EDS IN TIMISOARA (COUNTY OF TIMIS)
 
Gheorghe DAVID, Florin IMBREA, Siomona NIÞÃ
 
                                                               University of Agricultural Sciences Timisoara
 
Abstract. The authors present in this paper a synthesis of results of the experimental cycle 2000-2005, a period characterised by very different climate conditions and that points out the good behaviour of all experimental hybrids. Experimental results point out the favourable reaction of the hybrids to mineral fertilisation, average yield reaching over 10,000 kg/ha of ears harvested at the “milk-wax” maturity period. Optimal sowing density for this crop as shown by experimental data is 65,000 plants/ha.
 
Key words: sweet maize, fertilising, “milk-wax” maturity
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A STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF SOWING ELEMENTS ON THE MAIN YIELD IN OIL RAPE
 
Georgeta POP, Valeriu TABÃRÃ, Lucian BOTOª
 
Agricultural and Veterinary University of the Banat, Timiºoara, Tomania
 
Abstract: Oily rape is a technical crop of great importance not only for food industry but also for a series of domains – chemical industry and particularly bio-fuel industry. Expansion trends of this crop in our country as a result of oily rape demand is stopped because of below expectation results – sometimes crops are totally compromised. The project aims at solving this problem by finding the causes that engender the poor results – finding an assortment.
 
Key words: influence,sowing, rape, yeld, oil.
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A STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF SOME BARLEY AND TWO-ROW BARLEY CULTIVARS UPON DIFFERENTIATE FERTILISING IN THE GLEYED LUVOSOIL AREA IN THE ALMAJULUI DEPRESSION
 
Simona NIÞÃ*, I. BORCEAN*
 
Agricultural and Veterinary University of the Banat, Timiºoara,România
 
Abstract. Research aimed at monitoring the impact of variable doses of nitrogen applied on two phosphorus and potassium funds on yield and on its quality in the Precoce barley cultivar and on the Daciana and Laura two-row barley cultivars. As biological material was winter cultivars (Precoce and Laura) and spring cultivars (Daciana), we have also monitored the impact of sowing distance correlated with other factors. The highest yields (over 4,600 kg/ha) were in the Precoce barley cultivar fertilised with N60P80K80 and sowed with 500-600 g.g./m2. Among two-row barley cultivars, to note the Daciana cultivar with over 4,200 kg/ha fertilized with N60P80K80 and sowed with 600 g.g./m2.
 
Key words: barley, two-row barley, fertilising, sowing density, yield, quality
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ON THE IMPACT OF AMENDMENTS AND OF FERTILISING ON YIELD AND PROTEIN CONTENT IN BEANS
 
Florin IMBREA, Ioan BORCEAN
 
University of Agricultural Sciences Timisoara
                                                                                          Corresponding author: Imbrea Florin
Adress: Calea Aradului  Nr. 119,  Timisoara, Romania,
Phone: 0040/0256/277090, e-mail:imbrea_fl@yahoo.ca
 
Abstract. Research was carried out in the hill area of the Banat on a brown eumesobasic type of soil (eutricambosoil) with a weak acid reaction (pH = 5.78), medium supplied with humus, weakly supplied with nitrogen, and very well supplied with phosphorus and potassium. By applying amendments at the level of 75% Ah, we got an increase in yield of 17%. Phosphorus and potassium fertilisers applied in doses of P40K40 resulted in an increase in yield of over 450 kg/ha, and nitrogen fertilisers (N30-N90) led to increases of 15-43%.
 
Key words: beans, amendments, and fertilising
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STUDIES CONCERNING SOME LOCAL AND FOREING WHEAT VARIETIES BEHAVIOUR UNDER FERTILIZATION INFLUENCE, PLACED IN S.D.E. TIMISOARA’S ENVIRONMENT CONDITIONS
 
Ladislau WAGNER, Valeriu TABÃRÃ
 
Agricultural and Veterinary University of the Banat, Timisoara, Romania
 
Abstract:This experience has bun cored on for establishing the fertilization optimal dose in winter wheat cultivation technology and production capacity of the studied varieties. From this experience resulted that after NPK fertilization, the most productive varieties are: Alex, Baika and Romulus. The Renesansa variety must be areadit in cultivation because of its low cold resistance. We used four fertilization dose for the agro-funds, and we had the conclusion that the nitrogen optimal fertilization dose is 120kg/ha a.s.
 
Key words: wheat, varieties, fertilization, behaviour, virament conditions
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ON THE INFLUENCE OF FERTILISING ON YIELD AND PROTEIN COINTENT IN BROAD BEAN
(VICIA FABA L.)
 
                                                                                  Lucian BOTOª, Ioan BORCEAN
 
Agricultural and Veterinary University of the Banat, Timiºoara,România
 
Abstract. Results obtained on the luvosoil in the Caraº River Basin point out the good behaviour of the Montana cultivar in which, due to fertilising with N90P60K60 yield was over 3,000 kg/ha. Content in protein depending on cultivar and nitrogen dose varied between 23.2% and 27.0%, and protein yield varied between 393 and 801 kg/ha.
 
Key words: broad bean, fertilising, yield, protein content
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RESEARCH REGARDING THE DENSITY INFUENCE ON TOBACCO LEAF PRODUCTION
 
Marcel M. DUDA, Dan I. VÂRBAN, Sorin MUNTEAN
 
University of Agricultural Sciences Cluj Napoca
 
Abstract:In this paper the there are presented the results regarding the research between the density of plants and the leaf production/ha and the determination of the optimal density.
 
Key words: tobacco, plant density, TN 86 variety, production
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 RESEARCH CONCERNING THE TABACCO FERTILIZATION IN THE SOIL AND CLIMATE CONDITIONS
IN CLUJ-NAPOCA
 
                                                                             Marcel M. DUDA, DAN I. Vârban, RAREª Cotârlã
 
University of Agricultural Sciences Cluj Napoca
 
Abstract. The research presented in this paper has as a prime objective the determination of the fertilization effect with nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and magnesium over the production and characteristics of mass specific to the tobacco leaves. It had been observed that in the biggest production you might obtain if u apply big doses, but balanced doses of  NPK, and the bigger density of the leaves are present to the ones where the magnesium supplement had been applied.
 
Key words: tobacco, fertilization, TN 86 variety, soil, production
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RESEARCH CONCERNING THE CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY OF ANGELICA ARHANGELICA L., SPECIE, ITS BREEDING WITH THE HELP OF SEEDLINGS
 
 Dan Ioan VÂRBAN, Marcel Matei DUDA, Rodica VÂRBAN, Simona OROS
 
USAMV Cluj Napoca
 
Summery. The highest root production was obtained at the plating variant of 50x20 cm. The best germinative capacity was registered right after seeds harvest from main flowerings and also the secondary ones and not at least from blended seeds. The highest volatile oil content was registered at planting variant of 50x20 cm (0,96 ml/100g.
 
Key words: optimal nutrition area, germination, active principles;
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