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3rd section ECOLOGICAL RESTAURATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RURAL ENVIRONMENT

 

NEW TECHNICAL SOLUTION TO IMPROVE WILDLIFE HABITAT ON SANDY SOIL
 
Erika BODNÁR
 
University of Szeged, College of Agriculture, Hódmezõvásárhely, Hungary
 
Abstract: To broaden the choice of hunting facilities several wild-boar parks have been established on territories where not all ecological conditions are given to keep and maintain the species. We carried out the examinations on the Ásotthalom area where the sandy soil and the lack of surface-water resulted in problems in the water supply of wild boars. The adequately sized wallow was lined with plastic film then the pool got a natural-like cover. We obtained water from a well using a solar-cell pump. We had been observing the wallow for three years and now it is proved that this artificial object resists the impacts caused by weather or the animals. When constructing this artificial wallow we endeavoured to prepare it so that it could fit in the landscape and be natural-like.
 
Key words: wildlife habitat, water, wild boar, wallow
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ECONOMIC EXAMINATION OF BIOGAS  GAINED FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE
 
*Tamás MOLNÁR, **László SALLAI, ***Dezsõ FODOR
 
*University of Szeged College of Agriculture, Szeged, Hungary
**ASA. Ltd. Hódmezõvásárhely, Hungary
 
Abstract: The refuse dump of Hódmezõvásárhely will provide up-to-date storage and neutralisation for the refuse of the town for 50 years. The storage of the refuse takes place in waste dump by adequate compression. During the storage gases, mainly methane and carbon dioxide are developed due to the biological decomposition. We must prevent these gases to get into the atmosphere as they are involved in the global warming of the Earth and so they may cause changes in the environment. With the regulations getting stricter in the EU where we are going to be members soon it is essential that a refuse dump should have a biogas deflector system in order to protect our environment. A compressor drains gases from the waste material, while another compressor is used for taking the gases to the place where they are used. From utilisation point of view a considerable quantity is developed, which can be diversely utilised.
 
Keywords:  refuse dump, biogas,renewable energy, regulations getting
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Estimated potential of energy production from biogas produced in the base on agricultural and food-industrial biomass in the pilot farm of SZTE MFK
 
László Sallai, Tamás Molnár, Dezsõ Fodor
 
SZTE MFK, Engineering Department, Hungary
 
Abstract:The importance of waste treatment is increasing. Environmental aims are the main driving force. Stricter regulations for landfilling to lead to the development of alternative treatment methods for wasteFor the agri-mechanical research, animal rearing’s and food-industry’s waste material, the secondary-teriary biomass, is a highest concern. This technology is versatile and relatively simple to use as a reliable and effective means of producing a gaseous fuel from various organic waste. The most common application has been the digestion of animal dung, agricultural, and food-industrial waste. This was studied by our department in our pilot farm of our Faculty. The 50 dairycow, family sized modelfarm was built in the summer of 1991 as a result of  holland – hungarian cooperation at the territory of the Faculty. The new pigfarm with 30 sows and the new  goatfarm  with 100 nannies was given to the Faculty at 25th of april in 2001. was given on the 25th of april of 2001. Trough the livestock data the annual dung production were specified and from the literature calculated the energie by the biogas production coefficient.
 
Keywords: greenenergie, biomass, pilot farm
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Sustainable agricultural systems – production and qualitative parameters
 
Magdaléna Lacko-Bartošová
 
Slovak University of Agriculture, Nitra, Slovakia
 
Abstract: The aim of research work was to design, evaluate and improve the results from two approaches to sustainable farming systems – ecological and integrated. Farming systems were established in the fall of 1990 on brown clay – loamy soil. The altitude of experimental fields is 78 m, average year temperature 9,6 °C and annual precipitation 523 mm. For the evaluation of farming systems agronomic and qualitative parameters were used. Farming system influenced significantly the yields of winter wheat, common pea and maize for silage. Lower yields in ecological system were significant for winter wheat (18,3%) and common pea (8,1%) and higher for maize for silage (19,6%) as compared with integrated system. Effect of fertilizers and FYM was significant for yield of spring barley, maize for silage and Lucerne. Further, the qualitative parameters of winter wheat are evaluated.
 
Key words: ecological, integrated farming systems, agronomic, qualitative parameters
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The influence of crop and management of crop residues on basal soil biological properties
 
Milan Macák, Jozef  Smatana, Andrea Golisová, Eva Demjanová
 
Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, Slovak Republic
 
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the crop management practices on biological activity of the soil, soil organic matter and total content of nitrogen in topsoil layer. The field trials were conduced at the Experimental station of Slovak Agricultural University in Nitra, during 2001-2003. The experimental site belongs to warm and moderate arid climatic region in the south-west of Slovakia. The average precipitation is 561 mm, for the growing season 327 mm. Average air temperature is 9.7oC. The main soil type is Orthic Luvisol with good supply of accessible N, P and K and pH 5.7 in average. Clover (Trifolium pratense L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L), common pea (Pisum sativum L.), maize (Zea mays L.), spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were under different residue management practices. Three fertilization management practices: 0-zero level without organic or inorganic fertilization, respectively, F- mineral fertilizer calculated to the designed yield level, PR – incorporating all above-ground plant material as a source of organic matter plus mineral fertilizer for the balance equilibrium level.  Reduced tillage to the depth 0.10-0.12m + surface cultivation has been used. Plots were divided into subplots (11x40m) and were subjected to fertilization treatments with four replications.  The soil samples were collected from the 0.075m topsoil layer three times (spring: 2-3 weeks after sowing, summer: 2 days before harvest, autumn: 2nd decade of September). The soil samples were incubated at 28oC, and soil basal respiration was measured in 3-4 days intervals. Significantly higher level of basal respiration and flux of carbon dioxide from unfertilized zero treatments (30 mg/1000g/day) pointed out the threat of soil organic matter pool from long term perspective. Basal respiration and organic C content were influenced by growing crop. The treatments with incorporation of crop and post harvest residues reflect positive condition for balance of organic C content by medium level of soil basal respiratory activity.
 
Key words:soil respiration, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, crop sequences, spring barley
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THE PRODUCTIVE PROPERTIES IN SOME POTATO VARIETIES UNDER DIFFERENT ECOLOGICAL CONDITION IN SERBIA
 
Z. BROCIC*, Nebojsa MOMIROVIC*, Ivica DJALOVIC**, D. V. MIRCOV***
 
*Faculty of Agriculture, Zemun, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro
**Faculty of Agronomy, Cacak, Serbia and Montenegro
***Agricultural and Veterinary University of the Banat, Timiºoara, Romania
 
Abstract Two–year study was carried out at three locations: Zemun; Guèa and Srbobran, involving nine potato cultivars: Adora, Jaerla, Cleopatra, Latona, Liseta (early to medium-early cultivars); and Frisia, Kondor, Desiree, Morene (medium–late to late cultivars). The method of field experiments was used in the different ecological conditions and on different soil types in Zemun (100 m above sea level; slightly calcareous chernozem), Guèa (370 m above sea level; pseudo–clay), and Srbobran (86 m above sea level; chernozem). Mean monthly temperature and precipitation were observed during vegetation season. At the end of vegetation season, the total yield of tubers and yield of marketable potatoes including all healthy and non–damaged tubers heavier then 70 g. were examined. In addition we examined average number of tubers per plant and average tuber mass too. Average yields achieved in 2001, were significantly different from yields achieved in 2000. The best total yield was achieved at locality Zemun in 2001, with Morene, late potato cultivar. The highest yield of marketable potatoes was shown by cultivar Cleopatra obtained in Zemun in 2001. The highest average number of tubers per plant was found for the cultivars Desiree, Morene and Latona.
 
Key words: temperature, precipitation, tuber, yield, marketable yield, type of soil
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CLIMATIC CHANGES AND GRAPEVINE CULTIVARSIN PANNONIA PLAIN
 
Nevena PETROVIÆ*, Branislava SIVÈEV*, Vladislav POLAK*, Ivana TOŠIÆ**
 
*Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, 11081 Belgrade-Zemun, Serbia and Montenegro
**Faculty of Physics, Meteorological Institute, Dobraèina 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro
 
Abstract:Climatic changes on the global level have consequences in changes of meteorological and climatologic conditions at mezo-ranges. The aim of this paper was to determine suitability of growing grapevine cultivars in a viticulture region at Pannonia plain. Trend analyses was done based on the meteorological data for South Banat subregion (Vršac: H=83m, φ=45 09 N, λ=21 19 E).Trend of significance for the 95% level of confidence for mean air temperature and sunshine duration was obtained for the May-June period. For those elements, trend was increasing. For mean air temperatures, extreme air temperatures and amount of precipitation, trend was insignificant.The grapevine cultivars than ripen earlier are recommended, as well as low trunk training suitable for covering
 
Key words: climatic changes, low trunk, grapevine sort, trends of the meteorological elements.
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ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE:A STRATEGY FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
 
Gheorghe Valentin ROMAN, Elena NISTOR, Maria TOADER
 
University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest
 
Abstract:In exploiting the various forms of land and natural resources, including in agriculture, our responsibility towards the future generations must be taken into account, as an ethical component pertaining to the future. Technologies must diminish their impact on the environment, natural ecosystems must be less influenced by agricultural activities, and biological diversity must be preserved and developed by: rational agricultural production, diversified biological agricultural technologies, economic efficiency, adequate agricultural production and processing techniques, efficient food quality management, sensible and trustworthy decision-making worldwide. Modern technology of food production and processing raises a wide ranging debate about the sources, users, and purpose of food and its unique role in the society, as global commodity, and core part of local human societies. In the efforts to change the food type, place and production mode, organic agriculture will provide one means that enables humankind to start cleaning up and improving the environment, as well as preserving biodiversity – a finite world resource of economic and ethical value for humankind, whose reserves are being eroded or lost for perpetuity by unsustainable practices. Therefore, one of today’s critical challenges is the conservation of biological diversity, and the sustainable use of biodiversity components for the benefit of humankind.
 
Key words: ecological agriculture, food safety and security, protection of the ecosystems, biodiversity
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FERTILITY LIMITATIVE FACTORS STUDY AND YIELD CAPACITY RECOVERY MEASURES IN THE MUREªULUI PLAIN TERRAINS
 
I. BORZA*, H. VLAD**, D. ÞÃRÃU*, D. DOLOGA**, A. ILIUÞÃ**, Dorina FLOREA***
 
*Agricultural and Veterinary University of the Banat, Timiºoara,România
**OSPA Arad, România
***ªcoala Generalã nr. 4 I. Slavici, Arad, România
 
Abstract: The paper displays some aspects referring to terrains resources structure as well as the physical and geographical characteristics of mentioned area.There is a brief but complete presentation of a great variety of geological and geomorphological formations (Curtici, ªiria, Livada, Nãdlac, Vinga Plains), for each of them being exposed main a characteristics that refers to the development area and the ecological factors manifestation way. The paper further presents limitative factors nature and intensity implied in soil fertility such as: fine texture humidity excess, hard compactness. We also present the intervention means (fit to different cases) that could lead to terrain quality improvement and yield increasing.
 
Key words: edaphic, resources, recovery, fertility
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STUDY OF ZINC BIOACCUMULATION PROCESS IN CEREALS FROM
POLLUTED SOILS versus RAIN REGIME
 
B. LIXANDRU*, Smaranda MªU**, C. BOGATU**, N. DRAGOMIR*, I. PEÞ*, Anca PRICOP*
 
*Faculty of Animal Sciences and Biotechnologies, Timiºoara. România
**National Institute of Industrial Ecology ECOIND, Bucharest-Branch Office Timiºoara, Romania
 
Abstract: This study follows the development of some corn cultures onto artificial polluted soils with zinc salts, comparatively with polluted soils and amended with pillared volcanic tuff with clinpotilolite containing high polynuclear aluminium salts – cage type. Experimental period took place during two years, soil pollution degree being near alertlevel in first year, for less sensible soils (670 mg Zn/kg d.s.), and 3.5-4 times greater. Plants tolerate in both cases searched pollution level. But, they current different bioaccumulation levels depend on vegetative organ and phenophases. Amendment of polluted soils determinates essential changes of zinc bioavailability in soil, and the consequence is decreasing of zinc concentration up to 3 times in roots and aerial parts. Zinc bioaccumulation rate in grains is 20-25 % greater in polluted soils, but quantity of bioaccumulated zinc is not dangerous for their use in animal food.
 
Key words: zinc bioaccumulation process, polluted soils, pillared clays, corn
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RESEARCHES REGARDING THE AIR LEAD AND ZINC BIOACCUMULATION
IN THE CORTICOLOUS LICHENS
 
B. LIXANDRU*, G. TRANDAFIR*, Smaranda MªU**, F. MOSCALU*
 
*Faculty of Animal Sciences and Biotechnologies, Timiºoara, România
**National Institute of Industrial Ecology ECOIND, Bucureºti-Branch office Timiºoara, România
 
Abstract In two locations of the Timisoara city, differentiated by the traffic’s intensity, during March-May 2005, the zinc and lead accumulation in two corticolous lichen species, Physcia aipolia and Xanthoria parietina was studied. The trees these two species were identified on were: Populus canadensis, Prunus pisardi, Acer platanoides and Populus alba. The corticolous lichen species accumulate similar zinc quantities regardless the studied location. In the case of lead, the Physcia aipolia species accumulates in both locations a significantly greater quantity (p≤0.05) compared to Xanthoria parietina, positively correlated with the intensity of the traffic.
 
Key words: corticolous lichens, zinc and lead, auto traffic
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NITRITES DETERMINATION IN THE WASTE WATERS FROM COMTIM PERIAM SWINE COMPLEX AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE SURFACE WATERS
 
Gh. NISTOR, Eleonora NISTOR
 
                                         Agricultural and Veterinary University of the Banat, Timiºoara, România
 
Abstract: Researches made refer to the determination of nitrites concentration in waste waters from swine Comtim complex–Periam, Timiº County. The lowest nitrite concentration of 1.3 mg/l, in the sample took from pump station one and water sample took one km upstream, are framed in the second class accepted for the surface waters. The highest nitrites concentration was determined in the water sample took in pump station one, with a value of 5.3 mg/l being over the all accepted standard limits accepted for surface waters approved by the National Council of Waters Resources.
 
Key words: nitrites, waste water, pollution
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THE INFLUENCE OF NITROGEN AND AMMONIA OF THE WASTE WATERS FROM COMTIM PERIAM SWINE COMPLEX UPON SURFACE WATERS
 
Gh. NISTOR, Eleonora NISTOR
 
Agricultural and Veterinary University of the Banat, Timiºoara, România
 
Abstract: The study was conducted to concerns about water quality after discharge the wastewaters from the swine farms from Comtim- Periam in Mureº River. Nitrogen concentrations from 852 mg/l to 17.3 mg/l exceed the standard limits accepted for the surface waters. As regarding the ammonia concentration is also very high, from 15.2 mg/l to 725 mg/l. Even the sample took one km upstream of 3.1 mg/l can’t be framed neither in the fourth class of the surface waters. Wastewaters from swine complex Periam are very pollutant for the surface waters, especially for the Mureº River.
 
Key words: nitrogen, ammonia, waste waters.
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THE REQUESTS FOR A LONG-TERM MATERIAL AND ATROPHIC RESOURCES ADMINISTRATION
FROM TIMIªOARA URBAN ENVIRONMENT
 
D. Þãrãu*, Irina Þãrãu**, I. Borza*, V. Ciupa***, Romana Jarba*
 
*Agricultural and Veterinary University of the Banat, Timiºoara, România
**O.S.P.A. Timiºoara, România
***Primãria Timiºoara, România
 
Abstract: This paper presents the results of the investigations concerning the “Inventory and assessment of soil pollution degree in a few areas of Timiºoara”. We present shortly the physical and chemical features of the area, the composition of edaphic cover in urban environment, some specific features and their role in defining the landscape conception. Finally, we introduce the necessary measures for a long term management of natural and edaphic resources.
 
Key words: resources, environment, sustainable, contamination
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THE EVOLUTION OF PEDOFAUNA DYNAMICS IN SOILS FERTILIZED WITH COMPOSTED SLUDGE AND IRRIGATED WITH USED WATERS RESULTED FROM ANIMAL BREEDING COMPLEXES
 
Mãdãlina IORDACHE, Iacob BORZA
 
Agricultural and Veterinary University of the Banat, Timiºoara,România
 
Abstract: The composting of different materials resulting from industrial processes or zootechnic complexes is a main problem concerning the removal of these residues. The zootechnic sludge represents a more difficult question, because besides the detergents used for the cleaning of boxes (used water), a high number of pathogenic agents accumulate too. The composting is a biological process (brought by bacteria and fungi) and maintained by other organisms – link of the trophic chain in the newly formed biocoenosis. This paper presents some aspects concerning the secondary decomposing fauna in soils fertilized with composted sludge and irrigated with used waters from zootechnic complexes.
 
Keywords: soil fertility, swine sludge, used water, enchytraeidae, acarians, miriapods, insects.
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THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURE PLANT AND ORGANIC FERTILIZATION ON LUMBRICIDES
ACTIVITY FROM SOIL
 
Mãdãlina IORDACHE, Iacob BORZA
 
Agricultural and Veterinary University of the Banat, Timiºoara,România
 
Abstract: Between the representative invertebrates involved in maintaining soil fertility, the lumbricids are the most important. Their spreading and development in soil depend on a few factors (1), more significant being the quantity of organic matter which constitutes their food source, the degree of soil disturbance by tillage and the type of culture plant. The paper presents the influence of these factors on lumbricids activity, organisms which can constitute an alternative for mineral fertilization.
 
Keywords: lumbricids, soil fertility, maize, wheat, barley, oat, lucerne, orchard grass.
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THE INFLUENCE OF NITRATES OF THE WASTEWATERS FROM COMTIM PERIAM SWINE COMPLEX UPON THE SURFACE WATERS
 
Eleonora NISTOR, Gh. NISTOR
 
Agricultural and Veterinary University of the Banat, Timiºoara, România
 
Abstract: Nitrates analysis of water is one of the most common tests done. This is because nitrate pollution of water presents a significant health risk for humans and animals. By this investigation was determined the waste waters from Comtim-Periam swine farms loading with nitrogen compounds. Laboratory analyses for nitrites concentration determination shows that the highest value, over the second class of surface water was of 36.4 mg/dm3 registered at the pump station no.1. The lowest value of 9.8 ml/dm3 was obtained at one km upstream from the place of discharge wastewater in the Mureº River.  In four from the six places where the samples were taken nitrates concentration is over the limit accepted for the surface waters of third class.
 
Key words: nitrates, wastewater, pollution
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THE INFLUENCE OF PH, ELECTRIC CONDUCTIBILITY AND DIFFERENT IONS OF THE WASTEWATERS FROM THE COMTIM PERIAM SWINE COMPLEX UPON THE SURFACE WATERS
 
Eleonora NISTOR, GH. NISTOR
 
                                Agricultural and Veterinary University of the Banat, Timiºoara, România
 
Abstract: The highest value of chlorine ions in wastewaters from Comtim complex of 345.01 mg/l was registered at pump station one being framed in the third class of the surface waters. The wastewaters loading with calcium ions are situated under the limits accepted for the first class of the surface waters. Sodium ions concentration is framed in the third and second classes accepted by the standard for the surface waters. The potassium ion concentration is extremely high comparative with the accepted standard limits in the samples took from pump station one, lagoon six and pump station three being framed only in the fifth class for the surface waters. In the other three samples, the values recorded framed in the first class of the surface waters. Phosphorus ion concentrations exceed in all the water samples the limits recommended by STAS: 1146-2002 for the surface waters.
 
Key words: ions, pH, electric conductibility, wastewaters
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CLIMATE FEATURES IN 2005
 
                                                                                                                       V.D.MIRCOV
 
Banat’s University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Timiºoara
 
Abstract:Characterising climate supposes analysing the evolution in space and time of the different climate parameters during the year 2005 at meteorological stations in the Banat area. The varied relief, whose auditorium-like distribution opens to the south and west, allows the penetration of moister air masses from north-west or from south turning Banat’s climate into a moderate-continental climate with ocean and sub-Mediterranean influences.
 
Key words: thermal regime, rainfall regime, hail, storm, snow storm, ice deposit, fog.
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